Language, country and people once and today
UPDATED  2021, August:  Reedited see  Language > Library >  Publications  Mažiulis V. Historical Grammar of Old Prussian. An English edition 2021 of Lithuanian edition 2004.  NB: All bibliographies not updated since 2016. To contribute contact Letas Palmaitis


Kails! You are on the Prussian site,

Prussia is mostly known as a historic German state with its capital in Berlin Brandenburg.
Prussia was also a pre-German Baltic land of the Balts Old Prussians, conquered by the German Order in the 13th c., being ruled by German-speaking authorities as an independent Baltic state till 1663 and fully united with Brandenburg after 1701.
Baltic Prussia has been divided between Poland and Russia since 1945. Today it is inhabited mostly by the Poles and the Russians.
(Modern Lithuanian part of former German Prussia never was entirely ethnic Baltic-Prussian but was mostly a habitat of the Old Curonians, part of Scalovians, newcomers Lithuanians, Latvians and Germans).
This site deals with Baltic, not German, Prussia, or PRŪSA, i.e. a historical territory of Sambia, Scalovia, Nadrovia, Natangia, Varmia, Pomesania, Pogesania, Bartha, Lubava, Sasna, Galindia, Sudovia.

Very often the name of the Balts is associated with inhabitants of the Baltic States Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, but the Baltic languages are erroneously identified with the Slavic languages. This site does not deal with Finno-Ugrians Estonians, but the term Balts is used to identify peoples speaking Baltic languages (Prussian, Lithuanian, Latvian). Although the term Baltic languages (by G.H.F. Nesselmann, 1845) for Lithuanian, Latvian and Prussian was artificially introduced only in the 19th c., the Balts Aistians were first mentioned by Tacitus in the 1st c., but the Balts Galindians and Sudines were mentioned by Ptolemaeus Claudius in the 2nd c. As for the Slavs (and Slavic), they first were mentioned by Jordanis in the 6th c. This term is etymologically related to the name of the Prussian tribe of Scalovians, but all Slavic languages possess common features which clearly differentiate them from much more archaic Baltic languages. Thus the Balts have preserved Sanskrit-, Greek- and Latin-like grammatical endings, i.e. so-called "sigmatic" ones with -s, but the Prussians preserved nasal grammatical endings additionally.

A student of Prussian will find all known Old Prussian monuments, their linguistic analysis, a five-languages Old Prussian Dictionary (English, German, Polish, Lithuanian, Latvian) and a Reverse Dictionary here. Current and classical works on Prussian are also placed here constantly. 

Nevertheless this site is created mostly for those who are interested in the revival of the Prussian language and the Prussian ethnicity at least in the form of a virtual world community, if not a real dispersed community. Today the single officially registered ethnic Baltic Prussian community exists in Lithuania, but various New Prussian groups constantly appear mostly among Neo-Pagans in Poland. The oldest New Prussian group is Tolkemita in Germany and its Prusa-Group branch. Inofficial ethnic Prussian community is on the stage of formation in the region of Kaliningrad.

There is a tendency (especial among the Neo-Pagans) to associate the revival of Prussian with the revival of pre-historic Pagan Prussians and their ethnic religion. This site does not negate restoring of the original elements of the Baltic Prussian ethnicity, nevertheless the Prussians are comprehended as
A: historically moving from a community based on genetic physical relationship toward a community based on spiritual relationship
B: with a free and widest possibility to confess any views,
C: but united by 1) the whole previous history, 2) common self-determination and common name, 3) common revived Prussian language, 4) adopting main elements of the Baltic folklore and various historical local customs (manners) of any origin which existed on the territory of Baltic Prussia, 5) perceiving this territory as the single real homeland.

What is the sense to revive Prussian and Prussians?
- First, for those who want to do this.
- Secondly, for the sake of uniting Europe in order it should not turn into a union of several rich industrial countries but into a union of all historic ingredients, which had historically formed the face of Europe.
- Thirdly, this will help inhabitants of the region of Kaliningrad to find their self-identification and ties with the land of the Prusai (Baltic Prussians), what is especially necessary under the developing driftage of the region toward European Union.

The Prussian romanticism seems to be immortal. The ideas of revival existed even under the conditions of the German state after 1914, but they did not disappear after 1945, on the contrary!

If you like this, do not hesitate to contribute to the development of the world Prussian Community.

As an instrument of the revival an International Research Institute of Prussology (IRIP) should be created. This site may become a germ of this Institute, therefore various experts (historians, archaeologists, linguists, ethnologists, lawyers, politologists) are invited from all over the world to cooperate and to organize common conferences under the heading of the IRIP.

Let us reconstruct and revive Baltic Prussia and Baltic Prussians!                                                                                                                           



Dr. Letas Palmaitis